A história da charcutaria

 

Em países como a Itália e a França, a charcutaria vem se desenvolvendo desde a Idade Média, onde então representava a solução para a conservação das carnes.

O termo veio da palavra francesa Charcuterie, nome feminino do século XVI, de Charcutiere – Indústria e Comércio da carne de porco, das preparações a base de porco.

 Charcuterie- Traiteur in Lyon

O mesmo nome se refere às especialidades à base da carne de porco e, ainda, às lojas especializadas em comercializar estes produtos.

A palavra francesa para uma pessoa que prepara charcutaria é charcutier, geralmente traduzido em Inglês como “açougueiro”. Isto levou à crença errada de que só pode envolver produtos de charcutaria de porco. Podemos dizer que se refere aos produtos – mas não limitado a – de especialidades de porco, como patês, rillettes, galantines, crépinettes, etc, que são feitos e vendidos em uma loja de estilo delicatessen, também chamado de charcutaria.

A edição de 1961 do Larousse Gastronomique define como: “A arte de preparar carnes diversas, em particular carne de porco, a fim de apresentá-los nas diversas formas mais”.

Os romanos podem ser os primeiros a ter regulamentado o comércio de produtos de charcutaria como eles escreveram as leis que regulam a produção adequada de juntas de carne de porco, mas os franceses também tiveram alguma influência.

Na França do século XV, guildas locais (corporações artesanais) regulamentavam comerciantes na indústria de produção de alimentos em cada cidade. Os membros destas guildas locais produziam uma série tradicional de carnes cozidas ou salgado e seco, que varavam, às vezes de forma distinta, de região para região. O charcutier preparava vários itens, incluindo patês, rillettes, salsichas, bacon , trotadores etc.

Estes métodos de conservação de carnes garantiram que teria um longo período de vida útil.
Várias regiões da França e da Itália se diferenciam por terem charcutarias renomadas, as quais fornecem fantásticos embutidos. Entendemos por embutido, então, o termo para exprimir a maioria das charcutarias, por estas apresentarem suas preparações embutidas, antigamente em tripas – prática que perdura ainda hoje – e, mais recentemente, com as sintéticas tripas plásticas.

Tripa natural seca

Imagens ilustrativas. Fontes: http://vidadequalidade.org/tipos-de-charcutaria/ http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charcuteria/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charcuterie

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